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Screen On Cancer
All you know about cancer screening...

 

 

 

1) Epidemiology:
Colon cancer and rectal cancer are malignant tumors that develop from large bowel mucosa. They are the most common digestive tract cancers.

Widespread in North America , Australia , New- Zealand , Great Britain ; rare in India , Colombia , Senegal : 50 times more frequent in the US than in Senegal . Third most common cancer in both men and women, third cause of death in both sexes. 170 000 Americans will be afflicted each year, 60 000 will die from it.

2) Risk factors:
- diet plays a vital role: high- fat and low- fiber diets can lead to colon cancer, while low- fat and rich- fiber diets protect the organism from tumors.
- tobacco use is also not recommended.
- fairly heavy alcohol consumption appears to moderately increase the risk of cancer in the colon and rectum (Annals of Internal Medicine, 2005).
- pre- disposition factors do exist: there are hereditary syndromes (hereditary polyposis colon cancers).

3) Cancer Growth:
the tumors deeply invade the bowel walls, reaching successively the different layers of the colon membrane, the peritoneum, then the lymph nodes. Later, the metastases reach the liver, the lungs, the brain, and bones.

4) Symptoms:
- abdominal pain, diarrhea and/or constipation, sometimes alternating;
- bleeding tumor produces blood in stool, either red (low located tumor) or black (high situated tumor);
- sometimes: abdominal mass, abdominal pain, fever, weight loss, anorexia;
- jaundice with bowel obstruction, requiring urgent surgery.

5) Diagnosis of colon cancer:
- radiology: sigmoidoscopy, far better test is undoubtedly colonoscopy, or virtual 64- Slice MSCT colonoscopy;
- biopsies;
- tumor marker assays: CEA , CA 19- 9, CA 125.
The Hemocult (widely used) is not reliable, because frequently disadvantaged by chronic blood loss.

6) Treatment of colon cancer:
- surgery: for localized curables cases, depending on stage of tumor;
- radiation: used post- operatively;
- chemotherapy: to reduce risk of recurrence;
- radiochemotherapy.

7) Follow- up:
- clinical exams;
- endoscopy, especially colonoscopy;
- tumor markers assays.

8) Prevention:
- fiber rich diets;
- after 40, it is highly recommended to perform a colonoscopy (searching for polyps that can lead to tumors) every 3 years, and the tumor marker dosages.


The above- mentioned tumor markers are part of the Biomarkers C12 test; performing this panel once a year is highly recommended.

Cancer can be detected : do it NOW.


 

Colon Cancer